Kerosene vapor diffused in air (as from a lamp wick) will burn at a maximum flame temperature of 990 °C (1814 °F). They are popular in areas where blackouts can be expected after a disaster. Circus performers, stage effects and other live performances that include fire, use kerosene because of its low fire temperature. [44], Kerosene is used to fuel smaller-horsepower outboard motors built by Yamaha, Suzuki, and Tohatsu. Work with kerosene with great caution. Flash point and freezing point properties are of particular interest for operation and safety; the standards also define additives for control of static electricity and other purposes. Probably one of the most common uses of kerosene oil is as lamp oil. It is highly combustible, making it suitable for the demands of a jet. [6], To prevent confusion between kerosene and the much more flammable and volatile gasoline, some jurisdictions regulate markings or colorings for containers used to store or dispense kerosene. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning "wax", and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. Between 1980 and 1984, 3,756 Saab 99 Petros and 2,385 Talbot Horizons (a version of the Chrysler Horizon that integrated many Saab components) were made. More ubiquitous in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, kerosene space heaters were often built into kitchen ranges, and kept many farm and fishing families warm and dry through the winter. Kerosene kept some market share by being increasingly used in stoves and portable heaters. Portable kerosene stoves earn a reputation of reliable and durable stove in everyday use, and perform especially well under adverse conditions. [21] The cost of extracting kerosene from coal was high. Before the days of electrically lighted road barriers, highway construction zones were marked at night by kerosene fired, pot-bellied torches. It is widely used as a fuel in aviation as well as households. [19][note 1] He heated coal in a retort, and distilled from it a clear, thin fluid that he showed made an excellent lamp fuel. [5] World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels (50 million U.S. gallons; 42 million imperial gallons; 190 million liters) per day. Your email address will not be published. The car was designed to run on two fuels. [38] [13] The freeze point of kerosene depends on grade, with commercial aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C (−53 °F). [30] Because Gesner's original Kerosene had been also known as "coal oil," generic kerosene from petroleum was commonly called "coal oil" in some parts of the United States well into the 20th century. It is used as a cooking fuel in portable stoves for backpackers. Kerosene uses range from the functional to the critical. Primarily used on small fishing craft, these are dual-fuel engines that start on gasoline and then transition to kerosene once the engine reaches optimum operating temperature. Kerosene is used as a fuel in portable stoves, especially in Primus stoves invented in 1892. By 1860, just two years later, the fleet had dropped to 167 ships. Kerosene is widely used in Japan as a home heating fuel for portable and installed kerosene heaters. Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. People in areas that experience cold winter temperatures and rely on electricity for heat should also consider having a kerosene heater available as a backup. [26] He has been dubbed the Grandfather of the American Oil Industry by historians. In outdoor activities and mountaineering, a decisive advantage of pressurized kerosene stoves over gas cartridge stoves is their particularly high thermal output and their ability to operate at very low temperature in winter or at high altitude. [citation needed] Recently, a multipurpose lantern that doubles as a cook stove has been introduced in India in areas with no electricity. It is widely used as a fuel in aviation as well as households. Lawes Company [31] Kerosene, made first from coal and oil shale, then from petroleum, had largely taken over whaling's lucrative market in lamp oil. Kerosene is often used in the entertainment industry for fire performances, such as fire breathing, fire juggling or poi, and fire dancing. However, care should be taken to avoid a fire with any open flame, as spillage can result in a rapidly spreading fire.

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