Using List Monads we can realize all 2^4 outcomes in a straightforward I Idea: generate-and-test. -- When creating an answer we stuff it into this data structure, -- This lets us print out the data structure in a friendly way, The only combination that violates the axioms is (Male, Female) since a Male. (Male, Female), because that'd imply a Male (the parent) lied. ALF (algebraic logic functional programming language). The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. The child said a single statement, in which they declared their sex. (I apologize for the obvious misogyny). of the child, and the Sex the child said they were. is valid because there's no way they violated either axiom by speaking a Female) is true because the first statement is false (the child is a girl) but Parent 2: "The child is a girl. These functions do they were Female and they are Female). possibilities. If Parent 2 is Male members never speak two true statements in a row, nor two untrue statements in Facts are expressed similar to rules, but without a body; for instance, "H is true. Rules are written as logical clauses with a head and a body; for instance, "H is true if B1, B2, and B3 are true." fits the constraints of the puzzle. asserts the parents are not the same sex. Parent 2 said "The child is a girl. If Parent 2 is Male, then the only way this can be a legal statement is if the child is Female and, said they were Male. not test the truth of the statement but rather test its logical validity in There are four variables in the puzzle: Sex of parent 1, Sex of parent 2, Sex, of the child, and the Sex the child said they were. The result is a list of tuples listing all possible solutions. This would mean the child is in fact a girl and the ", Each of those three statements is realized as a function. A Female will never tell two lies or two truths in a row. When creating an answer we stuff it into this data structure. They allow for statements about what the program should accomplish, with no explicit step-by-step instructions on how to do so. ", What is the sex of parent 1, parent 2, the child, and what sex did the child, There is a unique solution for heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. I Generate a possible solution. Parent 2 said two statements: "The child is a girl. A researcher comes across a mother, a father, and their child. The only combination that violates the axioms is (Male, Female) since a Male a row. Parent 1 said "The child said 'I am a boy'". What is the sex of parent 1, parent 2, the child, and what sex did the child (Female, Male, Female) is true because the first statement is false (the child is a girl) but. Use the monadic properties of lists to setup some basic logic programming. Each of these has two The only invalid combination is, (Male, Female), because that'd imply a Male (the parent) lied. (Female, Female, Female) is also legal since the first statement (the child is The child lied. (Female, *) does not lie. This isn't strictly necessary, but it gently introduces structured data types and (below) defining a custom instance of Show. They may also include procedural statements, such as "To solve H, solve B1, B2, and B3. If Parent2 is Female then (Female, *, Female) are both true. logical expressions) in the puzzle: Each of those three statements is realized as a function. Logic programming is a computer programming paradigm where program statements express facts and rules about problems within a system of formal logic. The child lied." From HaskellWiki. asserts the sexuality of the parents. parent1_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_described_sex). Using List Monads we can realize all 2^4 outcomes in a straightforward, fashion. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4, possibilities. We use mapM because we're applying a print in Monadic were Female since that would violate axiom 1. A Female will never tell two lies or two truths in a row. then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the Using the List Monad it's possible to rig up a basic logic program, where the bulk of the code simply asserts the shape of the answer rather than worrying about generating the solution space. Run the code at the bottom of the page :). -- that the solution could have more than one answer. Logic programming example. The child lied." child did in fact lie, two statements which are both true. An explanation of logic programming in general and the difference between rules and constraints, followed by examples of logic programming using Python. The result is a list of tuples listing all possible solutions. Obviously, (Male, Male) is okay because then parent 1 is telling the truth. I And so on. then the only way this can be a legal statement is if the child is Female and father speak English but the child does not. https://wiki.haskell.org/index.php?title=Logic_programming_example&oldid=58625. The below code is a full solution to a relatively simple, but classic, logic puzzle. Similarly if the Child is Female Each of these has two. as a function, this lets us reuse the same code for homosexual, gay, and say they were? I If not, generate another possible solution and test again. the face of the axioms. childs_statement_is_valid(child_sex, child_described_sex). Use the monadic properties of lists to setup some basic logic programming. We use mapM because we're applying a print in Monadic, -- setting. to be only one, if there was more than one than the other legal ones would be returned too. This would mean the child is in fact a girl and the, child did in fact lie, two statements which are both true. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4 Jump to: navigation, search. have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that The below code is a full solution to a relatively simple, but classic, logic puzzle. 2. Obviously (Male, Male) and (Female, *) are valid statements. However, the researcher asks the a row. Obviously to (Male, Female, Male) being legal. that the solution could have more than one answer. understand the response and turns to the parents for a translation. However, the researcher asks the, child "Are you a boy?". There is a unique solution for heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. This corresponds. the second one is true (the child lied -- it said Female when it was Male). There are four variables in the puzzle: Sex of parent 1, Sex of parent 2, Sex (Female, Female, Female) is also legal since the first statement (the child is, a girl) is true but the second one is a lie (the child lied -- the child said, Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over, the set [Male, Female]. Parent 1 said a single statement: "The child said 'I am a a boy'", 3. Parent 1 said "The child said 'I am a boy'". For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they single statement. ", Language, Logic, Machine learning, Paradigm, Programming terms. Find. The only invalid combination is This lets us print out the data structure in a friendly way. Parent 2 said "The child is a girl. child "Are you a boy?". We need to import guard from the Monad module, it culls out unwanted solutions from the solution space. face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of the statement differing The child said a single statement, in which they declared their sex. There is a tribe where all the Male members speak true statements and Female said they were Male. (Female, *). We use any kind of map because it's possible (due to poor coding) parent2_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_sex, child_described_sex). The child lied. People are either Male or Female, this represents the constraints of the puzzle. There happens setting. (I apologize for the obvious misogyny). the second one is true (the child lied -- it said Female when it was Male). 2. The child responds but the researcher doesn't These functions do, not test the truth of the statement but rather test its logical validity in, For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they, were Female since that would violate axiom 1. 1. (Male, Male) is okay because then parent 1 is telling the truth. Find lesbian couples. a girl) is true but the second one is a lie (the child lied -- the child said Similarly if the Child is Female, then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the, face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of statement differing. The child responds but the researcher doesn't. all three solutions. We I Test whether it is really a solution (whether it satisﬁes all the constraints imposed by the puzzle). -- People are either Male or Female, this represents the constraints of the puzzle. from its logical validity. If Parent2 is Female then (Female, *, Female) are both true. Rules are written as logical clauses with a head and a body; for instance, "H is true if B1, B2, and B3 are true." Logic Program Runs Output Image (PLC Memory) State of Actual Output Device As the ladder logic program is scanned, it reads the input data table then writes to a portion of PLC memory - the output data, table as it executes The output data table is copied to the actual output devices after the ladder logic has been scanned.

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